Capillaires et OFP : où en est-on ?

Comme chaque année, l’association Objectif OFP tenait sa réunion annuelle en ce début novembre à Paris. Que ressort-il de cet événement ? D’emblée, son président Jacques Chauvineau, met les points sur les i concernant un programme supposé de fermeture de petites lignes ferroviaires : «les économies de leur abandon risquent d’être inférieures aux pertes nationales». Sous-entendu : éviter les 800 kilomètres de fermeture prochaine sur les 3.200 kilomètres de capillaires utilisées. Dans un autre cercle, Hervé de Tréglodé, dans son rapport sur «le soutien public au transport ferroviaire de fret»,  estimait quant à lui à 40 millions d’euros les sommes nécessaires au maintien – et à l’entretien – des capillaires. Mais ces subsides demeurent illusoires dans un environnement budgétaire contraint. On cherche alors du côté des collectivités locales et des principaux utilisateurs : les entreprises. Mais outre l’argent, qu’est ce qui coince ?

Pas assez d’OFP

Le nombre d’entreprises ferroviaires de proximité est encore faible. Les objectifs ne sont pas vraiment atteints alors qu’une étude de 2010 faisait état d’un potentiel de 20 à 25 OFP en France. André Thinières, délégué général d’Objectif OFP, le rappelait en juin dernier : «On est sur une trajectoire de progression, avec la création de nouveaux OFP et surtout de consolidation des OFP existants (…) Les chiffres d’activité de 2014 montrent que les OFP ont manipulé à peu près 4 % du tonnage total transporté sur le réseau ferré. On peut considérer que c’est encore peu, mais pas si mal comparé à l’Allemagne». De fait, on est face à des situations très variables, tant en terme de structure, que d’activité et de périmètre. Ainsi, les structures des principaux OFP actifs sur le réseau se distinguent en entreprises ferroviaires locales, en prestataires gestionnaires infrastructures ou en commissionnaires de transport ferroviaire.

OFP-Atlantique-G1706

Coûts et sécurité

Une idée fait son chemin : les lignes de catégories 7 à 9, sans voyageurs, n’ont aucune nécessité à être gérée selon les critères élevés des référentiels techniques de SNCF Réseau. La maintenance préventive systématique des lignes capillaires peut être assurée avec un faible effectif à temps plein. Sur ce point, SNCF Réseau dit «être à l’écoute des solutions techniques développées par d’autres acteurs», comme le rapporte La Lettre Ferroviaire. Laquelle précise que des acteurs comme Colas Rail (Bouygues) ou Socorail (Europorte/Eurotunnel) ont pu démontré la faisabilité d’une baisse des coûts dans la régénération et la réhabilitation des capillaires. Pour cela, un référentiel adapté serait en cours d’écriture en collaboration avec l’Etablissement Public de Sécurité Ferroviaire (EPSF), pour une probable diffusion au printemps 2016.

Qui gère les capillaires ?

Ce point fait l’objet d’innovations légales. La gestion des lignes capillaires au niveau travaux, maintenance et exploitation, peut être confiée à des groupements tiers, appelés Prestataires Gestionnaire d’Infrastructure (PGI). A l’origine, la loi ORTF de 2009 avait ouvert à RFF la possibilité de confier à des tiers la maintenance de lignes capillaires fret, mais cette disposition a été très peu utilisée. L’expérience des PGI actuels a montré que diverses dispositions contractuelles apparemment mineures avaient des effets lourds sur le prix des prestations, sans effet sur leur qualité. Les nouvelles dispositions de 2014 concernant la réforme ferroviaire française semblent cependant mieux répondre aux objections des PGI existants.

L’équation longueur / tonnage

Ce dernier point est le plus difficile à résoudre : le tonnage annuel. Cela dépend du ou des utilisateurs. On a ainsi vu récemment une capillaire cesser de fonctionner parce que les prix demandés à la tonne de céréales étaient plus élevés que la voie d’eau. Or la capillaire en question n’avait qu’un seul utilisateur: elle n’en n’a désormais plus (lire l’article). Les caractéristiques de certaines capillaires – une grande longueur et un faible trafic – ne permettent pas toujours de trouver l’équation économique optimale, sauf à créer de nouvelles entreprises susceptibles d’utiliser le train…et ladite capillaire. Or il s’agit là clairement d’une politique de réindustrialisation qui dépasse le cadre ferroviaire et devient le domaine des collectivités, des chambres de commerce, voire d’une région entière.

Il y a donc encore des progrès à réaliser en matière de financement, lequel ne reposera pas exclusivement sur les deniers de l’Etat, dont les budgets sont contraints. Une multiplication des OFP combinée avec le soucis d’exploiter des capillaires à moindre coût permettrait déjà de maintenir les 1.300 kilomètres actuels et d’en assurer la pérennité immédiate. Mais cela ne suffira pas sans formules économiques et financières innovantes…

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