Céréales : un ultime train entre Villeneuve l’Archevêque et Troyes

C’est probablement un exemple plus que criant, et malheureux. Les céréales sont une marchandise « faites pour le rail », du vrac comme en raffole logiquement le chemin de fer. Des tonnages importants qui composent un train complet, il n’y a rien de mieux. Mais à Villeneuve-l’Archevêque, à 42 kilomètres de Troyes, la Cavap, une coopérative agricole, a chargé avec tristesse son dernier train en juin 2015. Motif : à 25 € la tonne de céréales facturée entre Villeneuve-l’Archevêque et Troyes, le transport par le rail a définitivement perdu la bataille, reprend le site L’Yonne.fr. Qui rapporte les propos du responsable de la coopérative : « Il y a 25-30 ans, on faisait rouler encore une centaine de trains par an » se souvient Baudoin Delforge, « mais au fil des années, la rentabilité du rail n’a cessé de se dégrader face à la route et à la voie d’eau. Depuis 2000 et l’arrêt du groupe Soufflet, nous étions les seuls usagers de la ligne, à raison de 15 à 20 trains affrétés par an ». Soit un train toutes les deux à trois semaines.

Cavap-Troyes

Aux pieds des rails, des silos et leurs tonnes de céréales, matière idéale pour le chemin de fer…

Las, un dernier convoi a donc accompli son ultime voyage jusqu’à Troyes mi 2015, sonnant le glas de la voie ferrée privée de la coopérative. Soldant aussi une histoire de plus de 80 ans : c’est pour profiter du chemin de fer que Louis Marteau, fondateur de la Cavap, avait fait bâtir là le premier silo. Mais les prix du rail ne sont plus compétitifs. Baudoin Delforge évoquent les nouveaux prix de la concurrence : 15 à 18 € la tonne de céréales par la route de Villeneuve-l’Archevêque à Rouen, premier port céréalier d’Europe contre 11,50 € par bateau (5 € la tonne jusqu’à Montereau ou Bray-sur-Seine et environ 6,50 € de Montereau à Rouen).

Résultats : changement de stratégie. La Cavap a opté pour les ports de Bray-sur-Seine et Montereau (à une cinquantaine de kilomètres des silos), capables d’accueillir des unités de transport de 1.500 tonnes minimum, et des convois poussés de quatre barges accolées, soit près de 6.000 tonnes, ce qui dépasse n’importe quel train complet en France et en Europe. 80 % des transports des graines s’effectuent par ce « canal »  – sans jeu de mots – , bien plus économique et davantage écologique. Le fluvial est en outre adapté aux céréales qui supportent bien une certaine lenteur de déplacement car il n’y a pas de dégradation en cours de route, à l’inverse des produits frais ou surgelès. Seul le colza est acheminé par camion à l’usine de trituration du Mériot (Aube), située à une quarantaine de kilomètres de Villeneuve-l’Archevêque, ainsi que les céréales à destination des clients locaux.

A méditer

  • Une longue capillaire mono-entreprise
  • Des prix de transport de bout en bout plus élevés que la concurrence

 

 

 

 

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