Les leçons de Rastatt

Rastatt ne vous dira rien. C’est normal. Il s’y est passé pourtant un évènement d’ampleur qui a touché… un secteur d’ampleur. Et personne n’en a parlé. De quoi s’agit-il ? Rastatt est une petite ville allemande au sud de Karlsruhe. Elle est située sur un des plus grands axes ferroviaires d’Europe : l’axe Benelux-Allemagne-Italie. À la mi-août 2017, cette ligne ferroviaire, en cours d’élargissement à quatre voies, a subit un effondrement de la voie existante sur à peine 20m, à hauteur des travaux de Rastatt. L’incident est sévère : interruption complète des circulations jusqu’au 2 octobre, soit 7 semaines de blocage complet. Grave ?

On peut le dire. C’est que outre le trafic voyageurs local, ce sont aussi les ICE vers Bâle ainsi que les TGV Paris-Sud Allemagne qui furent momentanément suspendus sur le tronçon allemand. Mais le pire, ce fût pour les 200 trains de fret qui transitent par-là chaque jour ouvrable. Le couloir Rhin-Alpine présente les volumes de trafic les plus élevés que n’importe quel corridor ferroviaire en Europe, selon Hupac. Le rail dispose en effet d’une part de marché de 70% dans le transport de marchandises entre le nord de l’Europe et l’Italie via la Suisse. Le transport combiné représente 50% de l’ensemble du corridor. L’arrêt de la ligne aurait demandé  environ 15 000 camions et conducteurs pour traverser les Alpes suisses chaque semaine, soit le double du trafic actuel. Et cette main d’œuvre n’était de toute manière pas disponible. C’est donc un coup très dur porté pour le climat, mais aussi pour la logistique.

Le logisticien chimique suisse Bertschi a dû utiliser jusqu’à 150 camions chaque jour pour relier Bâle à Karlsruhe, distantes d’environ 200 kilomètres. BLS cargo n’a pu détourner que 70 de ses 140 trains hebdomadaires tandis que Hupac n’a pu faire rouler que 20% de ses 60 trains par semaine, mais fin septembre 60% du trafic pouvait péniblement être assuré, avec parfois plusieurs jours de retard. Au-delà de la perte du chiffre d’affaire et des pénalités contractuelles, l’ampleur de Rastatt permet de craindre un dommage durable pour le ferroviaire, pourtant appelé comme élément essentiel de la transition post-carbone.

Et pourtant l’incident de Rastatt ne présentait aucun intérêt pour la presse. Normal. Les trains, on en parle quand il y a grève ou une inauguration TGV. Pourtant, la logistique, c’est non seulement tout un business source d’emplois, mais surtout c’est ce qui permet à chaque citoyen de trouver chaque jour des rayons de magasins bien remplis. Pour se faire une idée de l’impact sur un secteur si méconnu, on peut enregistrer les propos d’un cadre dirigeant des entreprises logistiques : « les entreprises de transport et de logistique de taille moyenne, qui ont migré leur trafic de base [de la route] vers le rail, souffrent des conséquences financières qui en découlent chaque jour. Les transports ne peuvent plus être planifiés, ce qui entraîne des coûts supplémentaires considérables dans la planification des camions dans les centres d’expédition des transitaires. En outre, il y a des coûts accrus pour les services de camionnage et des pénalités contractuelles en cas de non-respect des délais de livraison [aux clients]. Les entreprises de traction [ferroviaire] génèrent également d’énormes coûts supplémentaires pour les locomotives et le personnel lors de l’utilisation d’itinéraires alternatifs. »

 

La carte montre les possibilités d’itinéraires alternatifs. Ils n’ont pourtant pas permis d’offrir des solutions de rechange comme attendu. On voit ici les limites du système ferroviaire : au moindre incident, c’est le chaos. Cette image de fragilité n’aura probablement pas échappé à la fois aux élus mais surtout, aux industriels, qu’on a le plus grand mal à convaincre à opter pour le rail. Il va falloir tirer les leçons de Rastatt. Le lundi 2 octobre, la voie était rouverte à la circulation…

Énumérons quatre leçons à tête reposée :

1) Il est urgent d’accélérer l’interopérabilité des machines ET des conducteurs. Alors que les routiers circulent indifféremment d’une autoroute à l’autre avec un bagage réglementaire minimaliste, les conducteurs de trains doivent, eux, connaître d’indigestes référentiels de plusieurs pays, dans plusieurs langues ! L’ETCS permettrait déjà de nombreux progrès à condition que chaque réseau n’y mette pas une flopée d’exceptions réglementaires…

2) Il est urgent que les réseaux mettent en commun un catalogue de sillons « libres » pour déviation de trafic en toute circonstance et en urgence. Cela demande certes beaucoup de courage politique et de persuasion, les méthodes de travail des uns n’étant pas celles du voisin, et vice-versa…

3) Il convient de sauvegarder toutes lignes disponibles à ce jour capables d’accepter bien entendu des trains lourds, à défaut de rapidité. On songe notamment aux itinéraires transfrontaliers, par exemple entre l’Allemagne et Mulhouse ou entre le nord de Strasbourg et Karlsruhe, actuellement non-électrifié…

4) Enfin, et c’est l’essence même de l’association Global Rail Network, le maintien de l’infrastructure dans un état impeccable est la condition sine qua non d’un chemin de fer revitalisé et sans coupures. Un gage de continuité du service public d’infrastructure. Pour cela, des formules financières très variées permettent aux trains de relier les entreprises industrielles. On peut relire cet article avec la Warsteiner Brauerei, la brasserie allemande qui prend le train.

On verra dans à l’avenir si les leçons de Rastatt auront été tirées ou si cela ne restera « qu’un simple » incident.

 

 

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