SNCF : des trains longs et lourds testés à Somain

23/09/2015 – Avec ses 1 500 m et plus de 100 wagons, la SNCF a constitué cette semaine un train de fret deux fois plus long que ceux qui circulent sur le réseau français. Les 4.200 kW de la BB 27000, une « Prima » d’Alstom, n’a eu aucun mal à décoller seule le lourd convoi, il est vrai en terrain plat. L’objectif, à terme, est de rendre le fret ferroviaire plus attractif pour les chargeurs français et européens. Ce n’est pourtant pas une première ni France ni en Europe. Les 11 et 12 janvier 2004, un train marchandises de 1500m avait réussi sa première course d’essai en Suisse entre Bâle-Muttenz et Thoune, juste avant la rampe du Lötschberg. Le train, qui pesait environ 4000 tonnes, était formé de 53 wagons pour le transport de blindés    – dont 38 chargés – et de 36 wagons de céréales vides ainsi que d’une voiture électrotechnique et tracté par trois locomotives Re460.

10 ans plus tard, le 18 janvier 2014, SNCF et RFF avaient testé en France un train de 1 476 m de long entre Sibelin (près de Lyon) et Nîmes. Outre la longueur exceptionnelle du train et son poids de 4 000 tonnes, l’innovation consistait à relier les deux locomotives du train (l’une en tête, l’autre au milieu) par un système de radiocommande, et de mesurer le temps de réponse aux actions du mécano (freinage, départ…). À Somain, une seule locomotive était concernée.

Mais quel est l’intérêt ? Comme le rapporte à La Voix du Nord son responsable Sylvain Cabaret, de SNCF Logistics : « On va donner de la capacité et des destinations à SomainLe site bénéficiera du fonds de commerce du train long et deviendra une vitrine du fret. On amène aussi de la valeur ajoutée et des offres complémentaires aux chargeurs de la zone. » Les tests de septembre vont maintenant se poursuivre à l’automne avec 12 trains, dont 4 hyperlourds de 7 500 tonnes. Il faut dire que l’augmentation des performances de la traction permet de voir les choses différemment. Il s’agit aussi de repousser les limites de cette exploitation : traction sur les attelages, réaction des wagons à la commande du freinage, occupation du train sur plusieurs circuits de voie, problématique des voies de garage de grandes longueurs, impact sur la densité du trafic…

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