Trains régionaux : l’appel d’offre obligatoire repoussé à 2026

Ce 8 octobre 2015 , les ministres des Transports se sont réunis à Luxembourg pour entériner le volet « politique » du quatrième paquet ferroviaire.  On touche ici au cœur du système ferroviaire puisqu’il s’agit des trains régionaux dont la Commission voudrait rendre obligatoire les appels d’offre, à l’origine d’une bataille sur la date butoir. Le 26 février 2014, le Parlement européen avait déjà adopté sa position en première lecture sur les six textes législatifs qui constituent le 4e paquet ferroviaire, à l’époque de la DG de Sim Kallas. Ce quatrième paquet législatif comporte deux piliers et avait réussi un passage en douceur au Parlement Européen pour son seul volet technique. L’autre volet, très politique, avait pour ainsi dire été recalé ou très sérieusement édulcoré, à la faveur d’un renouvellement des membres de la DG et du Parlement suite aux élections de mai 2014. C’est le deuxième volet politique qui a donc été entériné ce jeudi à Luxembourg. La décision prise différencie ce qu’on appelle les Grandes Lignes (TGV et autres…), dont les appels d’offre débuteront dès 2020, et les lignes régionales, plutôt TER, dont l’obligation d’appel d’offre est repoussée à 2026. Certains Etats s’y prendront malgré tout plus tôt. Ainsi, la Finlande annonçait cette semaine son intention de retirer en 2016 le monopole aux VR, les chemins de fer d’Etat finlandais.

Une autre crainte de cette libéralisation était émises par les « petits pays / petits réseaux », dont la hantise est de voir leur transport public entièrement sous la coupe de l’Etat français ou allemand, par le biais de Keolis (SNCF) ou Arriva (DBAG). Le Luxembourg, notamment, est très remonté à l’idée de voir une nation étrangère s’immiscer dans les affaires intérieures du Duché, à savoir l’aménagement du territoire et le transport des personnes. Les ministres de ces petits pays – et même de certains grands –  ont donc demandé de pouvoir effectuer la délégation de service public par attribution directe, et non par appel d’offres.

Cependant, selon Dominique Riquet, vice-président de la Commission des Transports et du Tourisme au sein de l’Union, ” (les régions) peuvent ouvrir le marché à la concurrence. Après les élections régionales, nous aurons peut-être des majorités politiques moins complaisantes vis-à-vis de la SNCF. » déclare-t-il. Le quotidien Les Echos rapportait, quant à lui, les propos de Jean-Marc Janaillac, le PDG du groupe  Transdev, très actif dans le transport régional : «  La France n’a pas besoin d’attendre que Bruxelles l’oblige à ouvrir son marché à la concurrence. Cela peut se faire dès aujourd’hui. Faute de quoi, les régions se retrouveront bientôt dans une situation financière intenable. » Une initiative que prendront peut-être certains territoires après les élections régionales, ou plus sûrement après l’élection présidentielle de 2017, rapporte le journal.

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